James Duehr, Meagan McMahon, Brandi Williamson, Fatinma Amanat, Alan Durbin, David W Hawman, Danny Noack, Skyler Uhl, Gene S Tan, Heinz Feldmann, Florian Krammer
Hantaviruses are the etiological agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). The latter is associated with case fatality rates ranging from 30% to 50%. HCPS cases are rare, with approximately 300 recorded annually in the Americas. Recently, an HCPS outbreak of unprecedented size has been occurring in and around Epuyén, in the southwestern Argentinian state of Chubut. Since November of 2018, at least 29 cases have been laboratory confirmed, and human-to-human transmission is suspected. Despite posing a significant threat to public health, no treatment or vaccine is available for hantaviral disease. Here, we describe an effort to identify, characterize, and develop neutralizing and protective antibodies against the glycoprotein complex (Gn and Gc) of Andes virus (ANDV), the causative agent of the Epuyén outbreak. Using murine hybridoma technology, we generated 19 distinct monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against ANDV GnGc. When tested for neutralization against a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing the Andes glycoprotein (GP) (VSV-ANDV), 12 MAbs showed potent neutralization and 8 showed activity in an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity reporter assay. Escape mutant analysis revealed that neutralizing MAbs targeted both the Gn and the Gc. Four MAbs that bound different epitopes were selected for preclinical studies and were found to be 100% protective against lethality in a Syrian hamster model of ANDV infection. These data suggest the existence of a wide array of neutralizing antibody epitopes on hantavirus GnGc with unique properties and mechanisms of action.